ဣဒ၊ ဨဂေါ ကေုာံ မဟာ-ဨဂေါ

ဣဒ (id)၊ ဨဂေါ (ego)၊ ကေုာံ မဟာ-ဨဂေါ (super-ego) ဂှ် ဒှ်မွဲဂကောံ ပ္ဍဲကဵု လညာတ် တေသြရဳ မသ္ၚေဝ်စိတ္တဇ (psychoanalytic theory) မဒှ် တေသြရဳ အစာပါရဂူ သိဂ်မုန် ဖြောဒ် (Sigmund Freud) မဂွံဆဵုကေတ်လဝ် ပ္ဍဲဗီုပြင်လဒက်ပ္တန် စိတ္တဇ ပိုယ်မၞိဟ်တအ်ရ။ အရာပိဝွံ ဒှ်အရာ မဗဂေတ် ပချဳဓရာင် စိုတ်ပူဂိုလ်မွဲမွဲရ။ ဣဒ ဂှ် ဒှ်စိုတ် ရာဂ မဂၠာဲသွက်ဒုင်စသိုင်တသိုက်၊ သီုကဵု ဒေါသမထေဲပၞောတ်၊ ဟီုကၠးကၠးမ္ဂး ဣဒဂှ် ဒှ်စိုတ်မကေတ် အတိုင်ပၟိက်ဆန္ဒဇကုဟေင်ရ။ ဣဒ ဂှ် ဒှ်စိုတ် မနွံပ္ဍဲအခိင်ကာလပိုယ် မဟွံစွံသတိ (ဝါ) အသညာစိုတ်။မဟာ-ဨဂေါ (super-ego) ဂှ် ဒှ်အရာမချပ်ဗစာရဏာ ကေုာံ အရာမပ္တံကဵု ဒ္ဂေတ်လၟေတ်ဂမၠိုင်တုဲ မဒှ်အရာ လတူအဲ လေဝ် ဟီုဂွံရ။ ဨဂေါ (ego) ဂှ် ဒှ်အရာမနွံလဒေါဝ် အကြာ ဣဒ ကဵု မဟာ-ဨဂေါတုဲ ဟီုမွဲသာ်ပၠန် ဒှ် အဲ ရ။[၁] နကဵု အစာပါရဂူ ဖြောဒ်ဂှ် ညးပသောင်လဝ် အတိုင်ဗွဲသၟဝ်ဝွံရ။

အရာကိစ္စဇၞော် ဗီု ဨဂေါ မဂွံအဓိပ္ပါယ် "အဲ" မကၠောန်ကမၠောန်ဇေတ်တ်ဂှ် ဗွဲဓမ္မတာမ္ဂး ချဳဓရာင်ကၠောန်ဒၟံင်ကမၠောန် သွက်ဂွံထိင် ဗဂေတ်ရ။ ဗီုမဒှ်ဂှ် ဍေဟ်ဆက်စပ်ဒၟံင် ကု ဣဒ။ ဨဂေါဂှ် တုပ်ညံင်ရဴ မၞိဟ်မနွံလတူချေဟ်တုဲ ဒှ်မၞိဟ်မထိင် ကေုာံ စၟဳစၟတ် ဒြဟတ်ချေဟ်ရ။ အရာတၟေင်တၞဟ်ခြာဂှ် သၟာလစဝ် (ညးမဍိုက်ချေဟ်)ဂှ် ဂစာန်ထိင်ချေဟ် နကဵုဒြဟတ်ဇကု မဒှ်ဒြဟတ် မဂၠေအ်ကေတ်လဝ်ရ။ ညံင်ရဴ သၟာလစဝ် ကဵု ချေဟ် မဆက်စပ်ဒၟံင် ရေင်သကအ်ဂှ် ဨဂေါ ကဵု ဣဒ လေဝ် ဆက်စပ်ဒၟံင် ရေင်သကအ်ဂှ် ဆက်လ္ၚတ်ကေတ်ညိ။ ဗွဲမဂၠိုင်မ္ဂး သၟာလစဝ်ဂှ် ယဝ်ရ ညးဟွံဒှ် မွဲလစှ်ေ ကုချေဟ်ညးမ္ဂး ညးဒးဒဳဏာအတေင် ဇရေင်ဒၞာဲညးမနွံပၟိက် မိက်ဂွံအာဂှ်ရ။ ညံင်ရဴသာ်ဂှ်ကီု ဨဂေါ ဒှ် အကေင်အၚောပ်အပြံင်အလှာဲ ဣဒ မလေပ်ကၠောန်တုဲ ဣဒဂှ် ဒှ်လဝ် အရာအလဵုအဇကုဨဂေါရ။[၂]

ဒတန်ဒမံင် မဟာ-ဨဂေါဂှ် ဒှ်အရာမဂွံတီကေတ် မၞိဟ်ဗီုလဵု ကၠောန်ပဗီုလဵုမ္ဂး ဒှ်မၞိဟ်ပရေအ်၊ မၞိဟ်ဂဝဂလေအ် ကေုာံ မၞိဟ်မဍဵုလျတုဲ ဂစာန်တုဲ ဝေင်ပါဲညံင်ဂွံတိတ်ဗၠး နူကဵုအရာဂှ်ရ။ ပ္ဍဲကဵုလိက်ညး ဨဂေါ ကဵု ဣဒ (The Ego and the Id) (၁၉၂၃) ဂှ် ဖြောဒ် ဗၟံက်ထ္ၜးလဝ် ဗီုဏအ် "အင်္ဂလက္သန် ဓဇန် ကေုာံ ကမြံကမြ နကဵု ပၟိက်အၚောပ်ဨဂေါ (ego ideal) ဂှ် ဒှ်အရာ ညံင်ရဴတၠအဝဵု "မၞးသ္ဒး (Thou shalt)"၊ ဟိုတ်ဂှ်ရ စိတ္တဗေဒဨဂေါဂှ် ဖြောဒ် ဗၟံက်ထ္ၜးပါ်လဝ် ကဆံင် ပၟိက်အၚောပ်ဨဂေါ ဟွံသေင်မ္ဂး ဇၞော်မောဝ်မဟာ-ဨဂေါ နကဵုပၟိက်အၚောပ်မိက်ဂွံဒှ်ဂမၠိုင်ရ။

. . . အရာမဝိုတ်စမွဲဟွံထေက်ဂှ် ကောန်ၚာ်မွဲ နွံကဵု အရာတၞဟ်ခြာ ကုအံက် (မိမ)ဍေဟ် ပ္ဍဲကဵုအခိင်ကာလအပိုင်အခြာဘဝဍေဟ်ရ။ ပ္ဍဲကဵုအခိင်ကာလ ပြသၞာ သြဒိပုသ် (Oedipus complex) (မဒှ်အခိင် ကောန်ၚာ် မနွံဓဝ်ဆာန် လတူအံက် လိင်တၞဟ်ခြာကုဇကု) ဂှ် ကဵုဒၞာဲ ကုမဟာ-ဨဂေါ ဍေဟ် သွက်ဂွံဇၞော်မောဝ်ဂှ် လဆောဝ်မ္ဂး ဒှ်အမ်သဝ်ခိုဟ်ကွေဟ်၊ ဆဂး ကြဴနူဂှ်ညိ၊ ဍေဟ်တအ် ဒးကျဟောမ်ဗြမ် ဗွဲမဂၠိုင်ရ။ ညံင်ရဴသာ်ဏအ်ဂှ် ဗွဲကြဴလေဝ် ဂွံဆဵုကေတ် ပ္ဍဲကဵုအံက်တအ် ကီုရ။ တုဲပၠန် ဗွဲမဂၠိုင် ကၠောန်ဗဒှ်ပတိုန် အင်္ဂလက္သန် ကိစ္စဇၞော်ဇၞော်ကီုရ၊ ဆဂး ပ္ဍဲကဵုကိစ္စဏအ်မ္ဂး ဆက်စပ်ကဵု ဨဂေါသၟးတုဲ ဟွံဆက်စပ် ကုမဟာဨဂေါ မဒှ် အရာမကဵုသ္ဂုတ်သွာတ် နကဵုဥပဓိမိမ နူကဵုအခိင်ကိုပ်ကၠာတေအ်ရ။
(လိက်ဝွံ ဗှ်စကၠိုဟ်ဝါတ်တုဲ ဆက်ချူကဵုဏာ နကဵုလိက်ဗလးညိရ)
ကောန်ၚာ်အကြာ ၃-၆ သၞာံ မဒှ်အခိင် မတီလိင်တၞဟ်ခြာမ္ဂး ကောန်ၚာ်တြုဟ် မနွံဓဝ်ဆာန် လတူမိ၊ ကောန်ၚာ်ဗြဴ နွံဓဝ်ဆာန် လတူမတုဲ စိုတ်ဣစ္ဆာ ကတဵုဒှ် လတူအံက် လိက်မတုပ်ကဵုဇကုရ။ ပ္ဍဲအခိင်ကာလဏအ် မဟာဨဂေါဍေဟ်တအ် ဇၞော်မောဝ်တိုန် တၟာဂလိုင်ရ။ မုဟိုတ်ရောမ္ဂး ဥပမာ ကောန်ၚာ်တြုဟ် ၜိုန်ရ မိက်ဂွံပၠံင်ကေတ် မိဇကု နူကဵုအပါကီုလေဝ် ဟိုတ်နူအပါဂှ် ဒြဟတ်ထတ်နူဇကု၊ ကာယဇၞော်နူဇကုတုဲ ဇကုပၠံင်ဟွံမာန်တုဲ ဗ္တောန်ကၠိုဟ်ကေတ် အရာမပထေက် အရာမပဟွံထေက်ရ။နကဵု ဖြောဒ် ညာတ်ကေတ် အရာဏအ် ၜိုန်ရ ကတဵုဒှ်ကၠုင် ပ္ဍဲကဵု ကောန်ၚာ်တအ်ကီုလေဝ် ဟိုတ်နူ မတီလဝ် မိမ ကိုပ်ကၠာစိုတ်လိင်ဇၞော်မောဝ်ဂှ်တုဲ အရာဏအ်ဂှ် လုပ်ဒှ်အာ ပ္ဍဲကဵုဨဂေါ (ဝါ) လုပ်ဒှ်အာ အပ္ဍဲပူဂိုလ်တုဲ ဒှ်အရာ မဟာဨဂေါ မဒှ်အရာဒ္ဂေတ်ဟွံသေင်ရ။

— New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis, p. 64.

ပရေင်ဇၞော်မောဝ်ကောန်ၚာ်ဂှ် ဇၞော်မောဝ်ခဍင် ဗၞတ်ဗ္ၜတ်သြဇာမိမဇၞော်ခဍင်၊ ဟိုတ်ဂှ်ရ အခိင်ကာလ ကောန်ၚာ်ဂှ် မနွံဒၟံင် ပ္ဍဲကာလမပြိုင်ပကာန် ဒၞာဲအံက် (ဝါ) အခိင်ကောန်ၚာ် မနွံဒၟံင် အခိင်ကာလမပြိုင်ပကာန် ကေတ်ဇမၞး ဒၞာဲမိမမ္ဂး၊ ကောန်ၚာ်ဂှ် ဍေဟ်ဒုင်စသိုင် ညံင်တၠအဝဵု "မၞးသ္ဒး Thou shalt" မဒှ် သြဇာအဝဵု မပၠံင်ကေတ်ဒၞာဲ သွက်ဂွံပစၞးဥပဓိဂှ် နွံ ပန် ကဆံင်

(၁) ရာဂ-အပ္ဍဲ (the auto-erotic) မဒှ်အရာမပကေင်စိုတ်ရာဂ ဗွဲအပ္ဍဲ မချပ်ကေတ်။ (၂) အတ္တပေမ (narcissistic) မကေတ်ပၟိက်ဇကုဟေင်။ (၃) သိုင်အိက် (anal) မဒုင်စသိုင်ကာမ နကဵုသထိုင်အိက် ထိုင်ဏမ်။ (၄) လိင်္ဂ (phallic) မဒုင်စသိုင်ကာမ နကဵုလိင်္ဂ[၃] ပရေင်ဇၞော်မောဝ်စိုတ် ကဆံင်တၞဟ်ဟ်တအ်ဏအ် ကေုာံ ပရေင်စုက်လုက် ဥပဓိမိမ မတွဟ်ဂး ဣဏအ်ဂှ် ဒှ်မိမအဲဂှ် ပလံင်ဗစိုပ် (ဝါ) ဗဒှ်ကဵု ဗီုပြင်ဣဒဒေါသ ကေုာံ မေတ္တာ ဗွဲတၟေင်ရ။[၄] တၞဟ်နဂွံဗမံက်ထ္ၜး အသညာစိုတ်တုဲ ဖြောဒ် ချူဗဒှ် ခၞံပတိုန်လဝ် လညာတ်ဨဂေါစိတ္တဗေဒ (ဣဒ၊ ဨဂေါ၊ မဟာ-ဨဂေါ) ပ္ဍဲကဵု လိက်ပရေင် လက်ကရဴ သဘဴဓဝ်လဟိင် (Beyond the Pleasure Principle) (၁၉၂၀) တုဲ ဆက်ပသောင်ဗွဲတြး ကေုာံ ပွံက် လညာတ်ဂှ် နကဵုလိက်ပရေင် ဨဂေါ ကေုာံ ဣဒ (The Ego and the Id)ရ။[၅]

ကိရိယာ စိုတ် (Psychic apparatus)ပြင်ဆင်

 
ဗမံက်ထ္ၜး ကရေက်စိုတ်

ဣဒ (Id)ပြင်ဆင်

ဣဒ ဂှ် ဒှ်အရာပြဝစိုတ်တမ်မူလ ပူဂိုလ်မွဲမွဲ မကတဵုဒှ်ကၠုင် နူဂဝ်၊[၆] တုဲပၠန် ဒှ်ရိုဟ်ကၞက် မနွံပၟိက် ကေုာံ အၚောပ် သွက်ခန္ဓကာယ၊ ဆန္ဒမဒုင်စသိုင် ကေုာံ အၚောပ်စိုတ်၊ ဗွဲတၟေင် စိုတ်ဒေါသ ကေုာံ ကာမရာဂ (အၚောပ်လိင်)။[၇]ဣဒ ကၠောန်ကမၠောန် အတိုင်အဘဴဓဝ် တရပ်စိုတ် (မိပ်လဟိင်) - ဒြဟတ်စိုတ် ဂၠိုက်ဂၠာဲ သွက်ကလိဂွံ မိပ်မြဟ် ကေုာံ အၚောပ်ဆန္ဒ၊ ဟီုမွဲသာ်ပၠန် တၞဟ်နဂွံဝေင်ပါဲ အရာမဂိတ်သကေဝ် အရာမဟွံမိပ်မြဟ်ရ။[၈][၉] ဖြောဒ် ဟီု ဣဒဂှ် ဒှ်အရာ အသညာစိုတ် မဒှ်စိုတ် မကတဵုဒှ် ပ္ဍဲအခိင်ကာလ မဟွံစွံသတိတုဲ ပံက်လဝ်ကဵု ပွံက် ဗီုဏအ်ရ။

ဣဒဂှ် ဒှ်အရာ ဒမၠု မဟွံဆက်စပ်ကု သကုတ်ပူဂိုလ်ပိုယ်၊ ပ္ဍဲကဵုပရေင်လ္ၚတ်ပိုယ်မ္ဂး ပိုယ်တီလဝ်ညိည မဒှ်အရာ ပိုယ်မကော်စ ကမၠောန်လပအ် (dreamwork)၊ တုဲပၠန်၊ ဍေဟ်ဂှ် ဒက်ပ္တန်လဝ် နကဵုအာရီုစိုတ် တုဲပၠန် ဗွဲမဂၠိုင်မ္ဂး ဣဒဂှ် အင်္ဂလက္သန် လပါ်ပရေအ်၊ တုဲပၠန် ဍေဟ်ဂှ် နကဵုပတောအ်ၜတ် ကုဨဂေါဟေင် ချူဗၟံက်ထ္ၜးဂွံရ။ ပိုယ်ဗၟံက်ထ္ၜး ဣဒ နကဵု နဲကဲမသ္ၚေဝ်ဂၠေပ်ဂမၠိုင် ပိုယ်မကော်စ ဂရုဂစာ် (chaos)၊ ဒေါသမပေင်ကၟိုဟ် (a cauldron full of seething excitations). . . . ဣဒဂှ် ပေင်တၟိုဟ်တဴ နကဵုဒြဟတ် နူကဵုစိုတ်ဗဳဇ၊ ဆဂး ဍေဟ်ဂှ် ဟွံမဲကုဂကောံတုဲ၊ ဟွံကၠောန်ပ္တိတ် နကဵုပၟိက်အၚောပ်မပံင်ကောံ၊ ဍေဟ်ကၠောန်ပ္တိတ်နင် သွက်ဂွံရနုက်ဗပေင် သဘဴဓဝ်တရပ်စိုတ် သွက်ဂွံမိပ်လဟိင်ဟေင်ရ။[၁၀]

ပ္ဍဲကဵု ဣဒ ဂှ် -

မံင်တန်တဴဒၟံင် တၞဟ်ခြာ ဗီုညးကဵုညး၊ ဟွံဆက်စပ် ရေင်သကအ် ... ပ္ဍဲကဵု ဣဒဂှ် ပရေင်လ္ၚတ်တအ် ဟွံမဲ ... ပ္ဍဲဣဒဂှ် လညာတ်မ္ဂး အခိင်လေဝ် ဟွံမဲ။ [၁၁]

ဣဒ ဂှ် ကတဵုဒှ်ကၠုင် ကိုပ်ကၠာနူ ဨဂေါ (အဲ)၊ ကတဵုဒှ်ကၠုင် နူဂဝ်၊ နူဂှ် ဍေဟ်ဇၞော်မောဝ်တိုန်တုဲ ဒှ်ကၠုင် ဨဂေါ (အဲ)။ ဣဒ ဂှ် ဒှ်အရာ မဂၠာဲသ္ၚဳ ပရေင်လဟိင်စိုတ်၊ ဨဂေါ (အဲ) ဂှ် ဒှ်အရာမကဵုဒြဟတ် အရာမဒှ်မာန်ရ။[၁၂] ဟိုတ်ဂှ်ရ ဣဒ ဂှ် -

ဒှ် အရာအိုတ်သီု မကလိဂွံ နူကဵု အာဲကၟာဲ၊ မဒှ်အရာမကလိဂွံ နူဂဝ်၊ တုဲ ဒှ်အရာသဇိုင် မဒက်ပ္တန်လဝ်တုဲ ဒှ်အရာတမ်မူလအိုတ်သီု၊ မဒှ်စိုတ်ကိုပ်ကၠာအိုတ်တုဲ ဒှ်အရာ ပိုယ်ဟွံတီမွဲရ။[၁၃]

စိုတ်ကောန်ၚာ် မစၜံင်တၟိတၟိမွဲမ္ဂး နွံဒၟံင် ပ္ဍဲကဵု ဒတန် "ဣဒ" ပေင်င်၊ နကဵုအာရီုစိုတ်မ္ဂး ပေင်တၟိုဟ်တဴ ကုစိုတ်ဗဳဇ ဒြဟတ် ကေုာံ ဆန္ဒ၊ တုဲပၠန် မနွံပၟိက် တြပ်စိုတ်လဝါဲဂှ်ရ။ ဣဒ အာတ်မိက် အတိုင်ဆန္ဒကာယ မနွံပၟိက်တအ်ရ။ နကဵု ပရေင်ဆဵုဂဗဂှ် ဍေဟ်ဍိုန်လျ အောန်စှ်ေအာရ။[၂]

ဣဒ ဂှ် "ဟွံတီလဝ် င္ၚုဟ်မး ဗဗွဲဓဝ်" မပ္တံကဵု အရာလဵု ခိုဟ် အရာလဵု ပရေအ်၊ ဒ္ဂေတ်လၟေတ်လဝ် ဟွံမဲရ။ (...) ဍေဟ်ဗက်အလိုက် ပၟိက်အၚောပ်စိုတ်ဍေဟ်ဟေင်တုဲ ဂၠာဲသွက်ပေင်တြပ်စိုတ်ဍေဟ်ဟေင်။"[၁၄] ဣဒဂှ် ဒှ်စိုတ် မဂၠာဲသွက် ကာမရာဂ၊[၁၅] အၚောပ်စိုတ် သွက်ဘဝ ဂွံဆက်တန်တဴအာ ဗွဲမတြပ်ကဵုစိုတ်ရ။ Alongside the life instincts came the death instincts—the death drive which Freud articulated relatively late in his career in "the hypothesis of a death instinct, the task of which is to lead organic life back into the inanimate state."[၁၆] For Freud, "the death instinct would thus seem to express itself—though probably only in part—as an instinct of destruction directed against the external world and other organisms"[၁၇] through aggression. Freud considered that "the id, the whole person...originally includes all the instinctual impulses...the destructive instinct as well",[၁၈] as eros or the life instincts.

ဨဂေါ (Ego)ပြင်ဆင်

ဨဂေါ (နူလေတ္တေန် "အဲ")[၁၉]ဂှ် ချဳဓရာင် နကဵုသဘဴဓဝ် မဒှ်မာန်၊ ဍေဟ်ဂစာန်ဖန် ရနုက်ဗပေင်ကဵု ပၟိက်အၚောပ်ဣဒ နကဵုဂၠံင်တရဴ အရာမဒှ်မာန်၊ နကဵုနဲကဲ မဂွံစဍာ်ဇမၠိင်၊ ဖန်ကဵု ဖိုလ်ဂုဏ် ညံင်ဂွံဒှ်၊ စၞးမဒးဒှ် ကသ္ၚောမ်သောက ဗွဲကြဴရ။[၂၀] ပ္ဍဲကဵု အခိင်တုပ်ပ်ဂှ် ဖြောဒ် ဟီု ဒဒှ်ရ ဨဂေါဂှ် "ဂစာန်ဖန်ကဵု စွံလဒေါဝ် အကြာ ဣဒ ကဵု အရာမဒှ်မာန်၊ ဨဂေါဂှ် ဗွဲမဂၠိုင် ဂြောပ်ဗဒန် အမိင်အသံ အသညာဣဒ နကဵု အလဵုဇကု အရာမဒှ်မာန် ကိုပ်ကၠာသညာစိုတ်၊

At the same time, Freud concedes that as the ego "attempts to mediate between id and reality, it is often obliged to cloak the [unconscious] commands of the id with its own preconscious rationalizations, to conceal the id's conflicts with reality, to profess...to be taking notice of reality even when the id has remained rigid and unyielding."[၂၁] The reality principle that operates the ego is a regulating mechanism that enables the individual to delay gratifying immediate needs and function effectively in the real world. An example would be to resist the urge to grab other people's belongings, but instead to purchase those items.[၂၂]

The ego is the organized part of the personality structure that includes defensive, perceptual, intellectual-cognitive, and executive functions. Conscious awareness resides in the ego, although not all of the operations of the ego are conscious. Originally, Freud used the word ego to mean a sense of self, but later revised it to mean a set of psychic functions such as judgment, tolerance, reality testing, control, planning, defense, synthesis of information, intellectual functioning, and memory.[၂၃] The ego separates out what is real. It helps us to organize our thoughts and make sense of them and the world around us.[၂၃] "The ego is that part of the id which has been modified by the direct influence of the external world. ...The ego represents what may be called reason and common sense, in contrast to the id, which contains the passions...in its relation to the id it is like a tug of war, which the ego has to hold in check the id to not let it loose; with the difference, that the teams fought against one other in equality, while the ego was against the much stronger 'id'."[၂၄] Still worse, "it serves three severe masters...the external world, the super-ego and the id."[၂၁] Its task is to find a balance between primitive drives and reality while satisfying the id and super-ego. Its main concern is with the individual's safety and allows some of the id's desires to be expressed, but only when consequences of these actions are marginal. "Thus the ego, driven by the id, confined by the super-ego, repulsed by reality, struggles...[in] bringing about harmony among the forces and influences working in and upon it," and readily "breaks out in anxiety—realistic anxiety regarding the external world, moral anxiety regarding the super-ego, and neurotic anxiety regarding the strength of the passions in the id."[၂၅] It has to do its best to suit all three, thus is constantly feeling hemmed by the danger of causing discontent on two other sides. It is said, however, that the ego seems to be more loyal to the id, preferring to gloss over the finer details of reality to minimize conflicts while pretending to have a regard for reality. But the super-ego is constantly watching every one of the ego's moves and punishes it with feelings of guilt, anxiety, and inferiority.

To overcome this the ego employs defense mechanisms. The defense mechanisms are not done so directly or consciously. They lessen the tension by covering up our impulses that are threatening.[၂၆] Ego defense mechanisms are often used by the ego when id behavior conflicts with reality and either society's morals, norms, and taboos or the individual's expectations as a result of the internalization of these morals, norms, and their taboos.

Denial, displacement, intellectualisation, fantasy, compensation, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation were the defense mechanisms Freud identified. However, his daughter Anna Freud clarified and identified the concepts of undoing, suppression, dissociation, idealization, identification, introjection, inversion, somatisation, splitting, and substitution.

 
"The ego is not sharply separated from the id; its lower portion merges into it.... But the repressed merges into the id as well, and is merely a part of it. The repressed is only cut off sharply from the ego by the resistances of repression; it can communicate with the ego through the id." (Sigmund Freud, 1923)

In a diagram of the Structural and Topographical Models of Mind, the ego is depicted to be half in the consciousness, while a quarter is in the preconscious and the other quarter lies in the unconscious.

In modern English, ego has many meanings. It could mean one's self-esteem; an inflated sense of self-worth; the conscious-thinking self;[၂၇] or in philosophical terms, one's self. Ego development is known as the development of multiple processes, cognitive function, defenses, and interpersonal skills or to early adolescence when ego processes are emerged.[၂၀]

Super-egoပြင်ဆင်

ထာမ်ပလိက်:Redirect The super-ego[၂၈] (ဂျာမာန်: Über-Ich)[၂၉] reflects the internalization of cultural rules, mainly taught by parents applying their guidance and influence.[၈] Freud developed his concept of the super-ego from an earlier combination of the ego ideal and the "special psychical agency which performs the task of seeing that narcissistic satisfaction from the ego ideal is ensured...what we call our 'conscience'."[၃၀] For him "the installation of the super-ego can be described as a successful instance of identification with the parental agency," while as development proceeds "the super-ego also takes on the influence of those who have stepped into the place of parents — educators, teachers, people chosen as ideal models".

Thus a child's super-ego is in fact constructed on the model not of its parents but of its parents' super-ego; the contents which fill it are the same and it becomes the vehicle of tradition and of all the time-resisting judgments of value which have propagated themselves in this manner from generation to generation.[၃၁]

The super-ego aims for perfection.[၂၆] It forms the organized part of the personality structure, mainly but not entirely unconscious, that includes the individual's ego ideals, spiritual goals, and the psychic agency (commonly called "conscience") that criticizes and prohibits their drives, fantasies, feelings, and actions. "The Super-ego can be thought of as a type of conscience that punishes misbehavior with feelings of guilt. For example, for having extra-marital affairs."[၃၂] Taken in this sense, the super-ego is the precedent for the conceptualization of the inner critic as it appears in contemporary therapies such as IFS.[၃၃]

The super-ego works in contradiction to the id. The super-ego strives to act in a socially appropriate manner, whereas the id just wants instant self-gratification. The super-ego controls our sense of right and wrong and guilt.[၃၄] It helps us fit into society by getting us to act in socially acceptable ways.[၂၃]

The super-ego's demands often oppose the id's, so the ego sometimes has a hard time in reconciling the two.[၂၆]

Freud's theory implies that the super-ego is a symbolic internalisation of the father figure and cultural regulations. The super-ego tends to stand in opposition to the desires of the id because of their conflicting objectives, and its aggressiveness towards the ego. The super-ego acts as the conscience, maintaining our sense of morality and proscription from taboos. The super-ego and the ego are the product of two key factors: the state of helplessness of the child and the Oedipus complex.[၃၅] Its formation takes place during the dissolution of the Oedipus complex and is formed by an identification with and internalisation of the father figure after the little boy cannot successfully hold the mother as a love-object out of fear of castration. Freud described the super-ego and its relationship to the father figure and Oedipus complex thus:

The super-ego retains the character of the father, while the more powerful the Oedipus complex was and the more rapidly it succumbed to repression (under the influence of authority, religious teaching, schooling and reading), the stricter will be the domination of the super-ego over the ego later on—in the form of conscience or perhaps of an unconscious sense of guilt.[၃၆]

The concept of super-ego and the Oedipus complex is subject to criticism for its perceived sexism. Women, who are considered to be already castrated, do not identify with the father, and therefore, for Freud, "their super-ego is never so inexorable, so impersonal, so independent of its emotional origins as we require it to be in men...they are often more influenced in their judgements by feelings of affection or hostility."[၃၇] However, Freud went on to modify his position to the effect "that the majority of men are also far behind the masculine ideal and that all human individuals, as a result of their human identity, combine in themselves both masculine and feminine characteristics, otherwise known as human characteristics."[၃၈]

Advantages of the structural modelပြင်ဆင်

 
The iceberg metaphor is often used to explain the psyche's parts in relation to one another.

Freud's earlier, topographical model of the mind had divided the mind into the three elements of conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. The conscious contains events that we are aware of, preconscious is events that are in the process of becoming conscious, and unconscious include events that we are not aware of.[၃၉] At its heart was "the dialectic of unconscious traumatic memory versus consciousness...which soon became a conflict between System Ucs versus System Cs."[၄၀] With what Freud called the "disagreeable discovery that on the one hand (super-)ego and conscious and on the other hand repressed and unconscious are far from coinciding,"[၄၁] Freud took the step in the structural model to "no longer use the term 'unconscious' in the systematic sense," and to rename "the mental region that is foreign to the ego...[and] in future call it the 'id'."[၄၂] The partition of the psyche defined in the structural model is thus one that cuts across the topographical model's partition of "conscious vs. unconscious".

"The new terminology which he introduced has a highly clarifying effect and so made further clinical advances possible."[၄၃] Its value lies in the increased degree of precision and diversification made possible: Although the id is unconscious by definition, the ego and the super-ego are both partly conscious and partly unconscious. What is more, with this new model Freud achieved a more systematic classification of mental disorder than had been available previously:

Transference neuroses correspond to a conflict between the ego and the id; narcissistic neuroses, to a conflict between the ego and the superego; and psychoses, to one between the ego and the external world.[၄၄]

It is important to realise however, that "the three newly presented entities, the id, the ego and the superego, all had lengthy past histories (two of them under other names)"[၄၅]—the id as the systematic unconscious, the super-ego as conscience/ego ideal. Equally, Freud never abandoned the topographical division of conscious, preconscious, and unconscious, though as he noted ruefully "the three qualities of consciousness and the three provinces of the mental apparatus do not fall together into three peaceful couples...we had no right to expect any such smooth arrangement."[၄၆]

The iceberg metaphor is a commonly used visual metaphor when attempting to relate the ego, id and superego with the conscious and unconscious mind. In the iceberg metaphor the entire id and part of both the superego and the ego would be submerged in the underwater portion representing the unconscious mind. The remaining portions of the ego and superego would be displayed above water in the conscious mind area.[၇]

Translationပြင်ဆင်

The terms "id", "ego", and "super-ego" are not Freud's own. They are latinisations by his translator James Strachey. Freud himself wrote of "das Es",[၄၇] "das Ich",[၄၈] and "das Über-Ich"[၂၉]—respectively, "the It", "the I", and "the Over-I" (or "I above"); thus to the German reader, Freud's original terms are more or less self-explanatory. Freud borrowed the term "das Es" from Georg Groddeck, a German physician to whose unconventional ideas Freud was much attracted (Groddeck's translators render the term in English as "the It").[၄၉] The word ego is taken directly from Latin, where it is the nominative of the first person singular personal pronoun and is translated as "I myself" to express emphasis. Figures like Bruno Bettelheim have criticized the way "the English translations impeded students' efforts to gain a true understanding of Freud"[၅၀] by substituting the formalised language of the elaborated code for the quotidian immediacy of Freud's own language.

See alsoပြင်ဆင်

ထာမ်ပလိက်:Div end

Referencesပြင်ဆင်

  1. Freud, Sigmund. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. XIX (1999) James Strachey, Gen. Ed. ISBN 0-09-929622-5
  2. ၂.၀ ၂.၁ Freud, Sigmund (1978). The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Volume XIX (1923–26) The Ego and the Id and Other Works, Strachey, James., Freud, Anna, 1895–1982, Rothgeb, Carrie Lee, Richards, Angela., Scientific Literature Corporation., London: Hogarth Press, 19. ISBN 0701200677. OCLC 965512 
  3. (2015) The Economics of Libido: Psychic Bisexuality, the Superego, and the Centrality of the Oedipus Complex. Karnac။ 
  4. Hommel, Bernhard (2019-10-01). "Affect and control: A conceptual clarification" (in en). International Journal of Psychophysiology 144: 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2019.07.006. ISSN 0167-8760. PMID 31362029. 
  5. The New Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought, Third Edition (1999) Allan Bullock and Stephen Trombley, Eds. pp. 256–257.
  6. Cherry, Kendra (6 November 2018). Freud and the Id, Ego, and Superego. VeryWellMind.com. Retrieved on 11 November 2018
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  8. ၈.၀ ၈.၁ Schacter, Daniel (2009). Psychology Second Edition. New York City: Worth Publishers, 481. ISBN 978-1-4292-3719-2 
  9. Rycroft, Charles (1968). A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis. Basic Books 
  10. Sigmund Freud (1933), New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. pp. 105–6.
  11. Sigmund Freud (1933). p. 106.
  12. (2012) "Id, Ego, and Superego", Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 393–399. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-375000-6.00199-3. ISBN 9780080961804  Chapter of (2012) Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 2nd, revised, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Academic Press, 393-399. ISBN 978-0-080-96180-4 
  13. Freud, An Outline of Psycho-analysis (1940)
  14. Sigmund Freud (1933). p. 107.
  15. Sigmund Freud, The Ego and the Id, On Metapsychology (Penguin Freud Library 11) p. 369.
  16. Freud, On Metapsychology p. 380.
  17. Freud, On Metapsychology p. 381.
  18. Sigmund Freud (1933). p. 138.
  19. Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  20. ၂၀.၀ ၂၀.၁ "Ego Development and Psychopathology: A Study of Hospitalized Adolescents" (February 1984). Child Development 55 (1): 189–194. Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Society for Research in Child Development. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1984.tb00283.x. PMID 6705621. 
  21. ၂၁.၀ ၂၁.၁ Sigmund Freud (1933). p. 110
  22. Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner, Daniel (2011). Psychology (1. publ., 3. print. ed.). Cambridge: WorthPublishers. ISBN 978-1-429-24107-6.
  23. ၂၃.၀ ၂၃.၁ ၂၃.၂ Snowden, Ruth (2006). Teach Yourself Freud. McGraw-Hill, 105–107. ISBN 978-0-07-147274-6 
  24. Freud,The Ego and the Id, On Metapsychology pp. 363–4.
  25. Sigmund Freud (1933). pp. 110–11.
  26. ၂၆.၀ ၂၆.၁ ၂၆.၂ Meyers, David G. (2007). "Module 44 The Psychoanalytic Perspective", Psychology Eighth Edition in Modules. Worth Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7167-7927-8 
  27. http://www.worldtransformation.com/ego/ "Ego". In The Book of Real Answers to Everything!, Griffith J.. 2011. ISBN 9781741290073.
  28. Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  29. ၂၉.၀ ၂၉.၁ Laplanche, Jean; Pontalis, Jean-Bertrand (2018) [1973]. "Super-Ego".
  30. Freud, On Metapsychology pp. 89-90.
  31. Sigmund Freud (1933). pp. 95-6.
  32. Arthur S. Reber, The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology (1985)
  33. (1997) Internal Family Systems Therapy. The Guilford Press။ 
  34. Calian, Florian (2012). Plato's Psychology of Action and the Origin of Agency. L'Harmattan, 17–19. ISBN 978-963-236-587-9 
  35. Sédat, Jacques (2000). "Freud". Collection Synthèse 109. Armand Colin. 
  36. Freud, The Ego and the Id.
  37. Sigmund Freud, On Sexuality (Penguin Freud Library 7) p. 342.
  38. Freud, On Sexuality p. 342.
  39. Carlson, Neil R. (2010). Psychology, the science of behaviour: The psychodynamic approach. Toronto: Pearson Canada, 453. ISBN 978-0-205-64524-4 
  40. James S. Grotstein, in Neville Symington, Narcissism: A New Theory (London 2003) p. x
  41. Sigmund Freud (1933). p. 101.
  42. Sigmund Freud (1933). p. 104.
  43. Angela Richards "Editor's Introduction" Freud, On Metapsychology pp. 344–5.
  44. Freud, Neurosis and Psychosis
  45. Angela Richards, "Editor's Introduction" in On Metapsychology p. 345.
  46. Sigmund Freud (1933). pp. 104–5.
  47. [1973] (2018) "Id", The Language of Psychoanalysis. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-92124-7 
  48. နိဿဲ ဗၠေတ် - Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Ich
  49. Groddeck, Georg (1923). Das Buch vom Es. Psychoanalytische Briefe an eine Freundin (in de). Vienna: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag။ 
  50. Quoted in Neville Symington, Narcissism: A New Theory (London 1996) p. 10.

Further readingပြင်ဆင်

External linksပြင်ဆင်

ထာမ်ပလိက်:Sigmund Freud ထာမ်ပလိက်:Authority control