ဂိတု Moon ဂှ် ဒှ်ထ္ၜောမ်ကဠင် နက္ခတ္တမွဲ မဂေတ်လန်ဒၟံင် ဂၠးတိတုဲ မဒှ် ဂြိုဟ် မရနုက်ကဵု ပိ ပ္ဍဲကဵု စက္ကဝါတ္ၚဲ (Solar System)ရ။ ဂိတုဂှ် နွံကဵု တိဒမၠိုက်ဂြိုဟ်ဂမၠိုင် ကေုာံ တၟအ်ဂမၠိုင်တုဲ ရာသဳ ကေုာံ ဓါတ်ဇရောတ်ဍေဟ်လေဝ် ဟွံဂွံတၟေင်တၞဟ်ခြာကွေဟ်ဟ်ကီုရ။ ဓါတ်ဇရောတ်ဂိတုဂှ် ၜတ် ကုဓါတ်ဇရောတ်ဂၠးတိမ္ဂး ဍိုန်လျဗွဲမလောန်တုဲ နွံၜိုတ် တြဴဂအုံ မွဲဂအုံ0.1654 g။ ဂၠံင်သြရ်ဗိတ်ဂိတုဂှ် ဗွဲသၟဟ်မ္ဂး နွံကဵုခြာ ကုဂၠးတိ 384,402 km (238,856 mi)၊[၁၃][၁၄] 1.28 စက္က-လျး ဟွံသေင်မ္ဂး ၜိုတ် ၁၀ အလန် ကုဗွိုင်စက်ဂၠးတိ (Earth's circumference)၊ တုဲပၠန် ဒြဟတ်ဇရောတ်ဍေဟ်ဂှ် ပကဵု ညံင်ပ္ဍဲဂၠးတိဏအ် ဂွံဒှ်ဍာ်ဒဳ (ဍာ်တိုန် ဍာ်စှ်ေ) ကေုာံ ဗီုပြင်တိ ဂွံဂၠိင်တိုန်ညိညဂှ်ရ။

Moon Moon symbol
Full Moon in the darkness of the night sky. It is patterned with a mix of light-tone regions and darker, irregular blotches, and scattered with varying sizes of impact craters, circles surrounded by out-thrown rays of bright ejecta.
Full moon seen from North America
Designations
Adjectives
Orbital characteristics
Epoch J2000
Perigee 362600 km
(356400370400 km)
Apogee 405400 km
(404000406700 km)
384399 km  (0.00257 AU)[၁]
Eccentricity 0.0549[၁]
27.321661 d
(27 d 7 h 43 min 11.5 s[၁])
29.530589 d
(29 d 12 h 44 min 2.9 s)
1.022 km/s
Inclination 5.145° to the ecliptic[၂][lower-alpha     ၁]
Regressing by one revolution in 18.61 years
Progressing by one
revolution in 8.85 years
Satellite of Earth[lower-alpha     ၂][၃]
Physical characteristics
Mean radius
1737.4 km  
(0.2727 of Earth's)
[၁][၄][၅]
Equatorial radius
1738.1 km  
(0.2725 of Earth's)
[၄]
Polar radius
1736.0 km  
(0.2731 of Earth's)
[၄]
Flattening 0.0012[၄]
Circumference 10921 km  (equatorial)
3.793×107 km2  
(0.074 of Earth's)
Volume 2.1958×1010 km3  
(0.020 of Earth's)[၄]
Mass 7.342×1022 kg  
(0.012300 of Earth's)[၁][၄]
[၆]
Mean density
3.344 g/cm3[၁][၄]
0.606 × Earth
1.62 m/s2  (0.1654 g)[၄]
0.3929±0.0009[၇]
2.38 km/s
27.321661 d  (synchronous)
Equatorial rotation velocity
4.627 m/s
North pole right ascension
  •  17h 47m 26s
  • 266.86°[၉]
North pole declination
65.64°[၉]
Albedo 0.136[၁၀]
Surface temp. min mean max
Equator 100 K 220 K 390 K
85°N  150 K 230 K[၁၁]
29.3 to 34.1 arcminutes[၄][lower-alpha     ၄]
Atmosphere[၁၂]
Surface pressure
Composition by volume

ဂိတုဂှ် လန်ဂေတ်ဒၟံင် ပ္ဍဲကဵု တၞောဝ်ဂၠံင်ဇကု မပူဂေတ်ဒၟံင် ဂၠးတိ၊ တုဲပၠန် ကရေက်မုက်တုပ်ပ်ဂှ် ဂတးဒၟံင် ကုဂၠးတိဝွံရ။ ဂိတုကရေက် မဂတးမုက် ကုဂၠးတိဂှ် ညးကော်စ ကရေက်ကရပ်ဂိတု (near side of the Moon)။ ဟိုတ်နူ ပွူဂၠံင်ဂိတု မထၜာဲဒၟံင်တုဲ ဗလးမုက်ဂိတု ကဝက်ပြင်င် (ၜိုတ် ၅၉%)ဂှ် ဂွံဆဵုကေတ် နူကဵု ဂၠးတိဝွံရ။[၁၅]အလုံမွဲ ဂၠံင်သြရ်ဗိတ် ဂိတု မဂေတ်ပူ ဂၠးတိဂှ် ဍေဟ်ဒးဂေတ် ပွိုင် ၂၇.၃ တ္ၚဲဂၠးတိ (နကဵု စနြမာသ)၊ နကဵု သူရိယမာသ မ္ဂး ၂၉.၅ တ္ၚဲ။ ကရေက်ကရပ်ဂိတုဂှ် ဂွံဆဵုကေတ် အသာ်ဂၠုဂၠု၊ အသာ်ဗုဗု ကေုာံ တၟးတၟး မဒှ်ဒၞာဲသမၠုင် ကေုာံ ခလံင်တအ်ရ။ ဗလးဂိတု ဇေတ်တ်ဂှ် ဒှ်အရာမဗဵုစခိုဟ်မွဲ ဟွံသေင်၊ ဂိတုဂှ် ဟွံမဲကဵု လျးတုဲ ဆဒၞာဲပယးလျးတ္ၚဲ မတက်ဒးဂှ်ဟေင် ဂွံညာတ်ကေတ် မတၟးဒၟံင် နူကဵုဂၠးတိပိုယ်ဏအ်ရ။ တုဲပၠန် လျးတၟက်ကလေင်ဂှ် တၟးစိုပ်ကၠုင် ဂၠးတိပိုယ်ရ။ ဟိုတ်နူကဵုဂၠးတိဂှ် ဒးသမၞိင်ဂၠးတိတုဲ ကရေက်လ္ၚဵုဂှ် ဟွံဒးလျးတ္ၚဲတုဲ ဂၠုအာရ။ သမၞိင်ဂၠးတိ မတိတ်ကၠုင် ဟိုတ်နူလျးတ္ၚဲဂှ် တၟာကြပ်တုပ်ဒၟံင် တၟာဂိတုဂှ်ရ ပ္ဍဲကဵု တ္ၚဲဂိတုအိုတ်မ္ဂး ဗလးမုက်ဂိတု ဗဒန်ကြပ်အိုတ်အာရ။ ဟီုမွဲသာ်ပၠန် ဟိုတ်နူ သမၞိင်ဂၠးတိ မဒးဗဒန်ထောအ် လျးတ္ၚဲ လတူစက်ဂိတုတုဲ ဂိတုမမံက် စဝေက်ဂွံဒှ်ကၠုင်ရ။

ဗွိုက်လၞင်စက်ဂိတုဂှ် နွံ3474.8 km၊ ၜိုတ် မွဲဂအုံ ပန်ဂအုံဂၠးတိ (တိ ဇၞော်နူ ဂိတု ပန်အလန်)၊ ယဝ်ရ ဒးပတုပ်မ္ဂး ဂိတုဂှ် နွံတၟာတိုက်အဝ်သတြေလဳယျာမွဲရ။[၁၆]ရံင်ကဵု ဇမၞော်မ္ဂး ဂိတုဂှ် ပၞောဝ်ကဵုဂြိုဟ်ဂမၠိုင် ပ္ဍဲကဵု စက္ကဝါတ္ၚဲဏအ် ဒှ် ဇၞော်မရနုက်ကဵု မသုန်။[၁၇]ဂိတုဂှ် ဍောတ်နူ ဂျူပဳတာညိ၊ တုဲပၠန် ဓါတ်ဇရောတ် သၠုင်အိုတ် ကေုာံ ကမၠေတ်ခိုဟ်အိုတ် မရနုက်ကဵု ဒုတိယ ပၞောဝ်ကဵု ဂြိုဟ်ဂမၠိုင် ပ္ဍဲကဵု စက္ကဝါတ္ၚဲဝွံ ၜိုတ်မတီလဝ်ဂှ်ရ။

တၠပညာတအ် ပတှ်ေကေတ် ဂိတုဂှ် ကတဵုဒှ်ကၠုင် နူကဵုသၞာံမတုဲကၠုင်ၜိုတ် ၄.၅၁ ကြဴနူ ဂၠးတိမကတဵုဒှ်တုဲ ဟွံလအ်ကွေဟ်ဟ်ရ။ လညာတ်မၞိဟ်မဒုင်တဲမာန်ဂၠိုင်အိုတ်ဂှ် ဂိတုဝွံ ကတဵုဒှ်ကၠုင် ကြဴနူ ဂိတု ကဵု ဂြိုဟ်မနွံတၟာမာသ် မကော်ဂး ထေဣသ (Theia) ဇီုကပိုက်တုဲ ကလှ်ေကရေက် မပါ်တိတ်အာဂှ် ဒှ်အာ ဂိတုရ။ သွဟ်သုတေသနတၟိမလ္ၚတ်တၟအ် နူဂိတုဂှ်လေဝ် ဟွံဒစဵုဒစး လညာတ်ထေဣသဝွံရ၊ ဆဂး အာယုက်သၞာံဂှ် လအ်နူဂှ် ဒှ်မာန်ရောင် စှ်ေစိုတ်ရ။[၁၈]

ကပေါတ်မၞိဟ်မကၠောန် ပလံင်ဗစိုပ်ဏာ ဇရေင်ဂိတု မာန်ကိုပ်ကၠာအိုတ်ဂှ် ဒှ်က္ၜင်ဂြိုဟ် နူကဵု ကၟိန်ဍုင်ပံင်ကောံသဵုဗိယေတ် မနွံယၟု လူနာ၃ မစှ်ေလတူဂိတု ပ္ဍဲကဵု သေပ်တေမ်ပါ ၁၉၅၉ ဂှ်ရ။ ဆက်ဂစာန်ကၠုင်တုဲ နကဵုနဲကဲမစှ်ေသိုက်က် လတူဂိတုမာန်ကၠုင်ဂှ် ဒှ်က္ၜင်ဂြိုဟ် လုနာ၉ ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၁၉၆၆။ နကဵုကောန်မၞိဟ် ဂွံဖျေဟ်ဇိုင် လတူဂိတုမာန်ဂှ် နကဵု ကၟိန်ဍုင်ပံင်ကောံအမေရိကာန် ဌာနနက္ခတ္တ နာသာ (NASA) ဖျေဟ်အစဳအဇန် အပေါလော (Apollo program) ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၁၉၆၈ က္ၜင် က္ၜင်ဂြိုဟ်အပေါလော၈၊ အကြာသၞာံ ၁၉၆၉ ကဵု ၁၉၇၂ ဂှ် မၞိဟ်တြဴတၠ တိုန်စိုပ်လဝ် လတူဂိတု၊ မၞိဟ်မဂွံ စိုပ်လတူဂိတု ကိုပ်ကၠာအိုတ်ဂှ် နကဵုက္ၜင်ဂြိုဟ် အပေါလော၁၁ ဂိတုဂျူလာင် ၁၉၆၉ဂှ်ရ။ နကဵု ကမၠောန်ဏအ်ဂှ် ကေတ်ဖျေဟ်နင် တၟအ် နူကဵုဂိတုတုဲ စမ်ၜတ်လ္ၚတ်တုဲ ဂွံတီကၠုင် ပထဝဳဗေဒ ဗီုလဵု ဂိတုစကတဵုဒှ်ကၠုင် ကေုာံ ပရူဒဒှ်ဂိတု မဒှ်လဝ်လက္ကရဴအိုတ်တအ်ဒှ်တမ်ရ။ စတမ်နူ သၞာံ ၁၉၇၂ အပေါလော ၁၇ ဂှ် ဂိတုမဂွံဒုင်ကၟုဲ နကဵုက္ၜင်ဂြိုဟ် မသက်ကုမၞိဟ်ဟေင်ရ။

ယၟုပြင်ဆင်

ယၟုမ္ဂး "ဂိတု" နကဵုဘာသာမန်ခေတ်လၟုဟ် ပ္ဍဲကဵု မန်ခေတ်တြေံဂှ် "ကိန္တု"၊ မန်လဒေါဝ် "ကိတု"။ ညံင်ကဵု ပ္ဍဲကဵု ဘာသာအင်္ဂလိက် ခေတ်တၟိ ပါ်ချူ စက်ဂိတု နဒဒှ် Moon တုဲ သွက် ဂိတုလၟိဟ်တ္ၚဲဂှ် month ကီုလေဝ်၊ ပ္ဍဲကဵုမန်ဂှ် ချူ ဂိတု တုပ်ပ်ရ။ အရာဏအ်ဂှ် ဟိုတ်နူ ကြက္ကဒိန်မန် မဒုင်သဇိုင် ကုဂိတုမမံက် ဂိတုစဝေက်တုဲ ယၟုမ္ဂး စက်ဂိတု ကဵု ဂိတုလၟိဟ်တ္ၚဲ ဗီုမန်ဂှ် ချူတုပ်ဒၟံင်ရေင်သကအ် (ဝါ) ပွံင်မအက္ခရ် ပြံင်လှာဲတုပ်ဒၟံင်ရေင်သကအ်ရ။ ပ္ဍဲကဵုလိက်မ္ဂး လဆောဝ်မ္ဂး သွက် စက်ဂိတုဂှ် ချူ သၟိင်ဂိတု။

ဂိတု
ကရေက်ကရပ်ဂိတု (ကရေက်မညာတ်ကေတ် နူကဵုဂၠးတိ)
ကရေက်ဇမ္ၚောဲဂိတု (ကရေက်လပါ်စး မဟွံညာတ်ကေတ် နူကဵုဂၠးတိ)
ပၞိဟ်သၟဝ်ကျာဂိတု (Lunar north pole)
ပၞိဟ်သမၠုင်ကျာဂိတု (Lunar south pole)

မကတဵုဒှ်ပြင်ဆင်

ဂိတုဂှ် ကတဵုဒှ်ကၠုင် နူကဵု သၞာံ ၄.၅၁ ဗဳလဳယာန် မတုဲကၠုင်တေအ်၊ ကြဴနူ စက္ကဝါတ္ၚဲ ကတဵုဒှ်လဝ်တုဲ ၆၀ မဳလဳယာန်သၞာံ။ ဗီုလဵု ဂိတုမကတဵုဒှ်ကၠုင်ဂှ် လညာတ်နာနာသာ် ဟီုဂးကၠုင်လဝ်ရ။[၁၉] ပၞောဝ်ကဵု လညာတ်တအ်ဂှ် မပ္တံကဵု including the fission of the Moon from Earth's crust through centrifugal force[၂၀] (which would require too great an initial rotation rate of Earth),[၂၁] the gravitational capture of a pre-formed Moon[၂၂] (which would require an unfeasibly extended atmosphere of Earth to dissipate the energy of the passing Moon),[၂၁] and the co-formation of Earth and the Moon together in the primordial accretion disk (which does not explain the depletion of metals in the Moon).[၂၁] These hypotheses also cannot account for the high angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system.[၂၃]

The evolution of the Moon and a tour of the Moon

The prevailing hypothesis is that the Earth–Moon system formed after a giant impact of a Mars-sized body (named Theia) with the proto-Earth. The impact blasted material into Earth's orbit and then the material accreted and formed the Moon.[၂၄][၂၅]

The Moon's far side has a crust that is 50 km (31 mi) thicker than that of the near side. This is thought to be because the Moon fused from two different bodies.

This hypothesis, although not perfect, perhaps best explains the evidence. Eighteen months prior to an October 1984 conference on lunar origins, Bill Hartmann, Roger Phillips, and Jeff Taylor challenged fellow lunar scientists: "You have eighteen months. Go back to your Apollo data, go back to your computer, do whatever you have to, but make up your mind. Don't come to our conference unless you have something to say about the Moon's birth." At the 1984 conference at Kona, Hawaii, the giant impact hypothesis emerged as the most consensual theory.

Before the conference, there were partisans of the three "traditional" theories, plus a few people who were starting to take the giant impact seriously, and there was a huge apathetic middle who didn't think the debate would ever be resolved. Afterward, there were essentially only two groups: the giant impact camp and the agnostics.[၂၆]

Giant impacts are thought to have been common in the early Solar System. Computer simulations of giant impacts have produced results that are consistent with the mass of the lunar core and the angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system. These simulations also show that most of the Moon derived from the impactor, rather than the proto-Earth.[၂၇] However, more recent simulations suggest a larger fraction of the Moon derived from the proto-Earth.[၂၈][၂၉][၃၀][၃၁] Other bodies of the inner Solar System such as Mars and Vesta have, according to meteorites from them, very different oxygen and tungsten isotopic compositions compared to Earth. However, Earth and the Moon have nearly identical isotopic compositions. The isotopic equalization of the Earth-Moon system might be explained by the post-impact mixing of the vaporized material that formed the two,[၃၂] although this is debated.[၃၃]

The impact released a lot of energy and then the released material re-accreted into the Earth–Moon system. This would have melted the outer shell of Earth, and thus formed a magma ocean.[၃၄][၃၅] Similarly, the newly formed Moon would also have been affected and had its own lunar magma ocean; its depth is estimated from about 500 km (300 တိုင်s) to 1,737 km (1,079 တိုင်s).[၃၄]

While the giant impact hypothesis might explain many lines of evidence, some questions are still unresolved, most of which involve the Moon's composition.[၃၆]

Oceanus Procellarum ("Ocean of Storms")
Ancient rift valleys – rectangular structure (visible – topography – GRAIL gravity gradients)
Ancient rift valleys – context
Ancient rift valleys – closeup (artist's concept)

In 2001, a team at the Carnegie Institute of Washington reported the most precise measurement of the isotopic signatures of lunar rocks.[၃၇] The rocks from the Apollo program had the same isotopic signature as rocks from Earth, differing from almost all other bodies in the Solar System. This observation was unexpected, because most of the material that formed the Moon was thought to come from Theia and it was announced in 2007 that there was less than a 1% chance that Theia and Earth had identical isotopic signatures.[၃၈] Other Apollo lunar samples had in 2012 the same titanium isotopes composition as Earth,[၃၉] which conflicts with what is expected if the Moon formed far from Earth or is derived from Theia. These discrepancies may be explained by variations of the giant impact hypothesis.


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Citationsပြင်ဆင်

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