တိုက်အာဖရိက (အၚ်္ဂလိက်: Africa) ဂှ် ပၞောဝ်ကဵု တိုက်ဂမၠိုင် ပ္ဍဲဂၠးတိဏအ် ဒှ်တိုက်ဇၞော်အိုတ် မရနုက်ကဵုဒုတိယတုဲ သီုဒှ် တိုက်လၟိဟ်မၞိဟ် မဂၠိုင်အိုတ် မရနုက်ကဵု ဒုတိယ ကြဴနူ တိုက်အာရှရ။ ဇမၞော်တိုက်ဝွံ နွံၜိုတ် 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) သီုကဵု တကအ်ဂမၠိုင်တုဲ တိုက်ဝွံ ဂြောပ်ဓလီုလဝ် သမၠဲ ဂၠးတိ သီုဖအိုတ် ၆% တုဲ နကဵုဨရိယာတိမ္ဂး ဒှ် ၂၀% ရ။[၄] နကဵုလၟိဟ်မၞိဟ် 1.3 ဗဳလဳယာန် [၁][၂] အတိုင်စရင်ကုလသမဂ္ဂ သၞာံ2018တုဲ ဒှ်လၟိဟ် မၞိဟ်ဂၠးတိ ၜိုတ် ၁၆% ရ။ တိုက်အာဖရိကဂှ် ဗိုင်ကၠောအ်ဒၟံင် ဗွဲဒိုဟ်သၟဝ်ကျာ နကဵု ၜဳမေဒိတာရဳယာန်၊ (Mediterranean Sea) တကအ် (Isthmus of Suez) ကေုာံ ဗွဲဒိုဟ် ဨသာန်မ္ဂး ၜဳဍာဲ (Red Sea)၊ ဗွဲဒိုဟ်အဂၞဲ မှာသၟိဒ်အိန္ဒိယ ကေုာံ ဗွဲဒိုဟ်ပလိုတ် မှာသၟိဒ်အာတ်လာန်တိစ် ။ ပ္ဍဲတိုက်အာဖရိကဂှ် တကအ်မာဒဂါသကာ ကေုာံ တကအ် archipelagos ဂမၠိုင် ပါလုပ်ကီုရ။ ပ္ဍဲကဵုတိုက်ဂှ် ဍုင်မကလိဂွံလဝ် အဝဵုကၞောတ်အထောတ်သီုဖအိုတ် နွံ ၅၄ ဍုင်၊ ဒေသပကင်အရင်အပိုင် ပန် ဒေသ၊ ကဵု ဍုင်မဂွံလဝ် အဝဵုအပိုင်အခြာ (de facto) ၜါဍုင်ရ။

တိုက်အာဖရိက
Africa
Africa (orthographic projection).svg
ဨရိယာ 30,370,000 km2 (11,730,000 sq mi)  (2nd)
လၟိဟ်မၞိဟ် 1,275,920,972[၁][၂] (2018; 2nd)
ဂတီု လၟိဟ်မၞိဟ် ထာမ်ပလိက်:Pop density
GDP (nominal) $2.45 trillion (2019; 5th)[၃]
GDP (PPP) $7.16 trillion (2019; 5th)[၃]
Demonym African
ဍုင်ဂမၠိုင် 54 (and 2 disputed)
ဒေသ မဗဒဗဒါဲဂမၠိုင်
အရေဝ်ဘာသာဂမၠိုင် 1250–3000 native languages
အခိင် UTC-1 to UTC+4
ဍုင်ဇၞော်ဂမၠိုင် Largest urban areas:

ပၞောဝ်ကဵု တိုက်ဂမၠိုင် ပ္ဍဲဂၠးတိဏအ် တိုက်အာဖရိကဂှ် ဗွဲသၟဟ် မၞိဟ်အာယုက်ဍောတ်အိုတ်၊[၅][၆] အာယုက်လဒေါဝ် (median age) ပ္ဍဲသၞာံ ၂၀၁၂ ဂှ် နွံ ၁၉.၇ သၞာံ မဒှ်အခိင် အာယုက်လဒေါဝ် အလုံလိုက်ဂှ် နွံ ၃၀.၄ ရ။[၇] ဍုင်အာလ်ဂျေရဳယျာ ဂှ် နကဵု ဗွိုက်ဨရိယာမ္ဂး ဒှ်ဍုင် ဇၞော်အိုတ် ပ္ဍဲအာဖရိကတုဲ နကဵုလၟိဟ်မၞိဟ်မ္ဂး ဍုင် နိဂေရဳယျာဂှ် ဇၞော်အိုတ် (ဝါ) ဒှ်ဍုင် မၞိဟ်ဂၠိုင်အိုတ်ရ။ အာဖရိက ဗွဲတၟေင် ပ္ဍဲကဵု လဒေါဝ်ဗွဲဒိုဟ်ဗမံက်ဂှ် တၠပညာဗွဲမဂၠိုင် ဒုင်တဲ တုပ်စိုတ် မဒှ်ဒၞာဲ ကောန်မၞိဟ် ကေုာံ ကၞုဲဗဳဇမနုဿ ကတဵုဒှ်ကၠာအိုတ် နကဵု သက်သဳသာဓက မဂၠာဲဆဵုကေတ် ဇုတ်ဇုဇဗဴဇ ဗဳဇကောန်မၞိဟ် နူကဵုသၞာံ ၜိုတ် ၇ မဳလဳယာန်သၞာံ မတုဲကၠုင် သီုကဵု Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis ကေုာံ H. ergaster— ကၠာအိုတ် Homo sapiens (modern human) တအ်ဂှ် ဂွံဆဵုကေတ် ပ္ဍဲအဳတဳအဝ်ပဳယျာ စၟတ်သမ္တီလဝ် သၞာံ ၜိုတ် 200,000 သၞာံမတုဲကၠုင်တေအ်ရ။[၈] Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.[၉]

Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised almost all of Africa; most present states in Africa emerged from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, which is headquartered in Addis Ababa.

Etymologyပြင်ဆင်

 
Statue representing Africa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta

Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, and in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean (Ancient Libya).[၁၀][၁၁] This name seems to have originally referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers; see Terence for discussion. The name had usually been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust",[၁၂] but a 1981 hypothesis[၁၃] has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri (plural ifran) meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers.[၁၄] The same word[၁၄] may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe originally from Yafran (also known as Ifrane) in northwestern Libya.[၁၅]

Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it then named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya.[၁၆] The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land (e.g., in Celtica from Celtae, as used by Julius Caesar). The later Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire's Exarchatus Africae, also preserved a form of the name.

According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy (85–165 AD), indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa. As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge.

Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa":

  • The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus (Ant. 1.15) asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya.
  • Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
  • Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace."[၁၇]
  • Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed[၁၈] linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean originally "rainy wind".
  • Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir."[၁၉]
  • Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi also called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya.[၂၀][၂၁][၂၂]
  1. ၁.၀ ၁.၁ "World Population prospects – Population division". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
  2. ၂.၀ ၂.၁ "Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision (xslx). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
  3. ၃.၀ ၃.၁ နိဿဲ ဗၠေတ် - Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named IMF_Data
  4. Sayre, April Pulley (1999), Africa, Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0-7613-1367-2.
  5. Swanson, Ana (17 August 2015). 5 ways the world will look dramatically different in 2100. Washington Post.
  6. Harry၊ Njideka U.။ "African Youth, Innovation and the Changing Society"၊ Huffington Post၊ 11 September 2013။ 
  7. Janneh, Abdoulie (April 2012). item,4 of the provisional agenda – General debate on national experience in population matters: adolescents and youth. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. Retrieved on 15 December 2015
  8. Homo sapiens: University of Utah News Release: 16 February 2005. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007
  9. Africa. General info. Visual Geography. Retrieved on 24 November 2007
  10. Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  11. Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.
  12. Venter & Neuland, NEPAD and the African Renaissance (2005), p. 16
  13. Desfayes, Michel (25 January 2011). The Names of Countries. “Africa. From the name of an ancient tribe in Tunisia, the Afri (adjective: Afer). The name is still extant today as Ifira and Ifri-n-Dellal in Greater Kabylia (Algeria). A Berber tribe was called Beni-Ifren in the Middle Ages and Ifurace was the name of a Tripolitan people in the 6th century. The name is from the Berber language ifri 'cave'. Troglodytism was frequent in northern Africa and still occurs today in southern Tunisia. Herodote wrote that the Garamantes, a North African people, used to live in caves. The Ancient Greek called troglodytēs an African people who lived in caves. Africa was coined by the Romans and 'Ifriqiyeh' is the arabized Latin name. (Most details from Decret & Fantar, 1981).”
  14. ၁၄.၀ ၁၄.၁ "The Berbers" (1903). Journal of the Royal African Society 2 (6): 161–194. 
  15. Edward Lipinski, Itineraria Phoenicia, Peeters Publishers, 2004, p. 200. ISBN 90-429-1344-4
  16. Africa African Africanus Africus. Consultos.com.
  17. Nile Genesis: the opus of Gerald Massey. Gerald-massey.org.uk (29 October 1907). Retrieved on 18 May 2010
  18. Fruyt, M. (1976). "D'Africus ventus a Africa terrain". Revue de Philologie 50: 221–38. 
  19. "Long-Distance Seafaring in the Ancient Near East" (1984). The Biblical Archaeologist 47 (3): 134–142. doi:10.2307/3209914. 
  20. Hallikan, 'Abu-l-'Abbas Sams-al-din 'Ahmad ibn Muhammad Ibn (1842). Kitab Wafayat Ala'yan. Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary Transl. by (Guillaume) B(aro)n Mac-Guckin de Slane (in en). Benjamin Duprat။ 
  21. al-Andalusi, Sa'id (2010). Science in the Medieval World (in en). University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292792319 
  22. Upton, Roger D. (1881). Travels in the Arabian Desert: With Special Reference to the Arabian Horse and Its Pedigree (in en). C.K. Paul & Company။ 
ကလေင်သီကေတ်လဝ် နူ "https://mnw.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=အာဖရိက&oldid=16159"